Saturday, February 24, 2018

Full Moon Calendar 2018  | Full Moon Dates 2018 - In My View

Full Moon Calendar 2018 | Full Moon Dates 2018 - In My View


Full Moon Day Occurs when The sun, Earth, and The Moon are aligned perfectly in a straight line i.e The Sun And The Moon Are Separated By 180 Degrees. Full Moon Day is the third of the Four Primary Phases Of The Moon (the other three phases are -  New Moon Day, First Quarter Moon, and Third Quarter Moon). Only on a full moon, a lunar eclipse can occur. In India, Full Moon day is also known as Purnima or Poornima.


Full Moon Day or Poornima is a day that comes once in a month (12 or 13 full moon day in a single year) or sometimes twice a months ( like in January 2018 there was two full moon day; which we will talk about in the later section).




Full Moon Calendar 2018  | Full Moon Dates 2018 - In My View

As of today (24 Feb 2018), we have missed 2 Full Moon Day or Poornima, but still, we will have a glimpse of each and every full moon day occurring or occurred in 2018.
Let's start:-


January 2, 2018 - Wolf Moon

As from today's perspective (February 24, 2018), we have missed this (January 2, 2018) full moon day; but still, we will talk about it. In the western world, the Full Moon in the month of January is known as Wolf Moon because it is said historically that people would hear wolves howling at the full moon. During January 2, 2018; the moon was in Cancer or in Karka Rashi according to Hindu Calendar. The January month full moon is also known as the Old moon.


wolf-moon-in-the-month-of-january
Credit: Daily Musings of a Curious Mind

Well, in India; according to Hindu Calendar, this Lunar month's full moon is remarkably known as Paush Purnima (December/January). During the month of Paush Purnima, there is a confluence of three rivers names Ganga, Yamuna, and Saraswati at Prayag Sangam. It is believed that whoever takes a holy dip at Prayag Sangam; they are relieved of their sins and one will achieve "Moksha" or "Salvation".
  


January 31, 2018 - Snow Moon

In the month of January 2018, there was two full moon day, therefore we will not have any full moon day in February because once in every 19 years, the month of February does not have a Full Moon. So is the case with the year 2018, so instead of the full moon in February, there will be two full moons in the month of January and March In the western world, this lunar month's full moon is also known as Snow Moon named after snow on the ground. During January 31, 2018; the moon was in Leo or in Simha Rashi according to Hindu Calendar.
Snow-moon-in-the-month-of-january
Credit: The USB Port
In India; according to Hindu Calendar, this lunar month's Full moon day is remarkably known as Magha Purnima (January/February). During the month of Magha Purnima, the ceremonial Kumbh Mela Is held (once in every twelve years) and Magha Mela is being celebrated annually.


March 1, 2018 - Worm Moon

In the western world, the full moon in the month of March is known as Worm Moon, as this full moon marks the end of the winter season or one can say cold weather starts to clear slightly. On March 1, 2018; the moon will be in Virgo or in Kanya Rashi according to Hindu calendar. This March month full moon is also known as the Crust moon or Crow Moon etc.
worm-moon-in-the-month-of-march
Credit: Old Farmer's Almanac
In India, according to Hindu Calendar, the lunar month's full moon day is remarkably known as Phalguna Purnima (February/March). The month of Phalguna marks the arrival of spring. During Phalguna Purnima, Holika Dahan takes place, and a day after that Holi Festival will be Celebrated (which is very commonly celebrated by the western world too).

March 31, 2018 - Pink Moon

Same as the month of January, the month of March has two full moon day. This lunar month's full moon is known as Pink Moon. The name Pink Moon signifies the arrival of one of the first spring flowers. On March 31, 2018; the moon will be in Libra or in Tula Rashi according to Hindu calendar. This month full moon is also known as the Grass Moon or Egg Moon etc.

Pink-moon-in-the-month-of-march
Credit: Wide Open Country

In India, according to Hindu Calendar, this lunar month's full moon day is memorably known as Chaitra Purnima (March/April). On Chaitra Purnima, Hanuman Jayanti is observed by all Hindu Community. Hanuman is the Vanara God (Monkey God) of Lord Rama Yuga. Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated in the honor of the birth of the Lord Hanuman.



April 29, 2018 - Flower Moon

This Lunar Month's Full Moon is known as Flower Moon, as this month's full moon indicates the flowers that usually bloom this month. It also indicates the official arrival of Spring. On May 29, 2018; the moon will be in Scorpio or in Vruschika Rashi according to Hindu calendar. This month full moon is also known as Corn Planting Moon or Milk Moon etc.
flower-moon-in-the-month-of-april
Credit: Shifting Vibration

In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, this lunar month' full moon is memorably known as Vaishaka or Baishaka Purnima (April/May). Vaishaka Purnima is also known as Buddha Purnima; as this day is celebrated as the birth anniversary of Gautama Buddha (also known as Siddarth Gautama). This day is observed as festival throughout all over India as well as even in some South-Asian Countries too.


May 29, 2018 - Strawberry Moon

This Lunar Month's Full Moon is known as Strawberry Moon, as this indicates the ripening of fruits (strawberry) during this month. On May 29, 2018; the moon will be in Sagittarius or in Dhanu Rashi according to Hindu Calendar. The May month full moon is also known as Rose Moon or Hot Moon etc.
Pink-moon-in-the-month-of-may
Credit:NJ.com


In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, this lunar month's full moon is memorably known as Jyeshtha Purnima (May/June). As on this auspicious day, married women observe fast for the longevity of their husband's life, and as well as for the prosperity and happiness in their married life.



June 27, 2018 - Buck Moon

This Lunar's Month's full moon day is known as Buck Moon; as the name buck Moon emerged from Buck's forehead because during this time of the year, Buck (Male Deer) their antlers and grows new one every year. On June 27, 2018,; the moon will be in Capricorn or in Makar Rashi according to Hindu calendar. The June month full moon is also known as Hay Moon or Wort Moon etc.
buck-moon-in-the-month-of-june
Credit: Orange Live


July 27, 2018 - Sturgeon Moon

The full moon in the August month is known as Sturgeon Moon because according to the western world, during Sturgeon Moon - there could be a large amount of huge freshwater fish can be found in the lakes as well as in the rivers. On July 27, 2018; the moon will be in Aquarius or in Kumbha Rashi according to Hindu calendar.
sturgeon-moon-in-the-month-of-july
Credit: Old Farmer's Almanac

In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, this lunar month's full moon is memorably known as Ashadha Purnima (June/July). This day is also dedicated to all the Gurus; therefore, also known as Guru Purnima.


August 26, 2018 - Corn Moon

The Full Moon in the August month is known as Corn Moon because usually during this time harvesting of corn is done. On August 26,2018; the moon will be in Pisces or in Meena Rashi according to the Hindu Calendar. The August month full moon is also known as Fruit Moon or Barley Moon etc.
corn-moon-in-the-month-of-august
Credit: Wiccan Moonsong


In India, according to the Hindu Calender, the Full Moon in the August month is memorably known as Shravana Purnima (July/August). There are so many festivals celebrated on this auspicious day. Hayagriva Jayanti is celebrated on this day, therefore; also known as Narali Purnima. Raksha Bandhan is also celebrated during the month of Shravana Purnima or Sturgeon Moon Day.


September 24, 2018 - Harvest Moon

The Full Moon in the September month is known as Harvest Moon because this is the time when normally harvesting takes place before the arrival of the autumn season. Harvest moon is also the first full moon after the arrival of autumn. On September 24, 2018; the moon will be in Aries or in Mesha Rashi according to the Hindu Calendar.
harvest-moon-in-the-month-of-september
Credit: Old Farmer's Almanac


In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, the full moon in the month of August is memorably known as Madhu Purnima (August/September). This full moon of September month is also known as Honey Full Moon Festival. This Buddhist festival is being celebrated in some parts of Bangladesh and by the Mon People of Thailand. On this auspicious day of the month of Bhadra; Hindus observe Uma Maheswara Vrata as well as Shakra Vrata where God Indra (God Of Lightning, Thunder, Rains, and River Flows) is worshipped.



October 24, 2018 - Hunter's Moon

The Full Moon in the October month is known as the Hunter's Moon as during this period of time; people generally start hunting, slaughtering, and preserving meats. It is the time to start preparing for the coming winter season. On October 24, 2018; the moon will be in Taurus or in Vrishabha Rashi according to the Hindu Calendar. The October month full moon is also known as Travel Moon or Dying Grass Moon etc.
hunter's-moon-in-the-month-of-october
Credit: Old Farmer's Almanac
In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, the full moon in the month of October is memorably known as Sharad Purnima (September/October). This Lunar Month of Aswin (September/October) marks the ending of Monsoon Season and the arrival of Winter season. This day is also celebrated as the birth anniversary of Lakshmi-The Hindu Goddess Of Wealth.



November 23, 2018 - Beaver Moon

The Full Moon in the November month is known as Beaver Moon as during this period of time; beavers actively start building their winter dams of wood and mud for the upcoming winter season. As the temperature drops down; harvesting also slows down. On November 23, 2018; the moon will be in Gemini or in Mithun Rashi according to the Hindu Calendar. The November month full moon is also known as Frost Moon or Trading Moon etc.
beaver-moon-in-the-month-of-november
Credit: Old Farmer's Almanac

In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, the full moon in the month of November is memorably known as Kartik Purnima (November/December). This lunar full moon of Kartik 
(November/December) is also known as Tripurari Purnima. This Purnima (Full Moon) is also celebrated as the Birth anniversary of Matsya (God Vishnu's Fish Incarnation). The Hindu God Vishnu Is regarded as the Preserver Of The Universe.


December 22, 2018 - Cold Moon

The Full Moon in the December month is known as Cold Moon as in most of the northern hemisphere; winter season truly begins from the month of December. This moon is also the very last full moon of 2018. On December 22, 2018; the moon will be in Cancer or in Karka Rashi according to the Hindu Calendar. The December month full moon is also known as Oak Moon.
cold-moon-in-the-month-of-december
Credit: The Golden Space Malaysia

In India, according to the Hindu Calendar, the full Moon in the month of December is memorably known as Margasirsa Purnima (December/January). This lunar full moon of Margasirsa (December/January) is celebrated as the birth anniversary of the Hindu god Dattatreya (a combined form of Hindu Male Trinity God). The trinity god is the combination of three Fundamental Hindu God i.e Lord Brahma (The Creator Of The Universe), Lord Vishnu (The Preserver Of The Universe), and Lord Shiva (The Destroyer Of The Universe).
see also, Why We Celebrate Maha Shivaratri - In My View

ON that note, I can say that I have tried enough to give an overview of Full Moon Calendar 2018  | Full Moon Dates 2018 - In My View within my reach. If there is any suggestion, I am all ears. Feel free to comment.

That’s it for this post — share it if you like, like it if you share 🙂

 Don’t Believe It As I Said Till You Yourself Believe It First – Gautama Buddha

Friday, February 16, 2018

Upcoming Events And Everything About Solar Flares - In My View

Upcoming Events And Everything About Solar Flares - In My View

As we all are familiar with the fact that, the sun is the only source of energy on which we are living. After all, we wouldn't be here without it. On one hand, the sun is the most vital source of energy for me, you, as well as all the living being on Planet Earth, and on the other hand, it also gives us a headache every once in a while. Astronomers had captured a glimpse of a Solar Flare a few days ago (As of 15 Feb 2018) producing a CME (coronal mass ejection), and it's expected to hit planet earth today as a solar storm.
Sola-flares-coming-from-the-sun's-surface
On August 31, 2012, a long prominence/filament of solar material that had been hovering in the Sun's atmosphere, the corona, erupted out into space at 4:36 p.m. EDT. Seen here from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the flare caused an aurora on Earth on September 3.
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

What Is Solar Flare?

A Solar Flare is a sudden flash of increased sun's brightness due to a large explosion of magnetic energy within the Sun's Atmosphere. The energy released during a solar flare is generally in the order of  1 × 1020 joules to 1 × 1025 joules.  A solar flare cannot be detected by naked eyes. In order to detect a solar flare, an observer needs to view it through a telescope or some other astronomical instruments. Sometimes solar flares are accompanied by Coronal Mass Ejection.

The amount of energy released during the occurrence of a solar flare is equivalent to the explosion of 100-megaton hydrogen bomb exploding at the same time or even 10 times greater than the energy released during the volcanic eruption. When a solar flare occurs in other than our sun's atmosphere is known as the stellar flare.



What Causes Solar Flare?

Frankly speaking, physicists are still baffled that what actually cause solar flare!!! The mechanism involved is still not well known. Therefore there is a general agreement on the facts related to The Source Of The Solar Flare's Energy. 

As per known theory, when charged particles (electrons) interact with the plasma, a solar flare is produced. Solar flares are believed to occur due to a process called magnetic reconnection. In simple terms, when the loop of magnetic force breaks apart and then rejoin; a vast amount of energy (solar flare) is released. Within a matter of minutes, particles are accelerated into Deep Space. The sudden breaking and then rejoining of the loop of magnetic force is the origin of the particle acceleration. Particles accelerated by the intense energy nearly to the speed of light.


How Often Do Solar Flares Occur?

Solar flares generally tend to occur near Sunspots - mostly in the active region. During the occurrence of a solar flare, all the layers of the sun (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona) are affected. Larger solar flares occur much less than the smaller solar flares.

Well, the frequency of occurrence of solar flare solely depends on the activity of the sun. In simple terms, in an 11-year solar cycle, their frequency varies from several flares per day when the sun is particularly active to the fewer than one flare per week when the sun is in a quiet phase.

Classification Of Solar Flares

An earlier method for The Classification Of Solar Flares was based on the intensity as well as the Emitting Surface of Hα line of the Solar Spectrum. But nowadays, the modern classification of solar flares are done according to the peak flux (W/m2) of X-rays from 100 to 800 picometre; as observed by the GOES (Geostationary Operation Environmental Satellite) spacecraft orbiting around the earth.
the-Sun-shows-a-C3-class-solar-flare
On August 1, 2010, the Sun shows a C3-class solar flare (white area on upper left), a solar tsunami (wave-like structure, upper right) and multiple filaments of magnetism lifting off the stellar surface
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
ClassificationPeak Flux Range at 100-800 picometre
(watts/square meter)
A< 10−7
B10−7 – 10−6
C10−6 – 10−5
M10−5 – 10−4
X> 10−4
Source: Wikipedia

When Was The First Solar Flare Discovered?

The first ever recorded solar flare is also the most powerful flare ever recorded till date. Known as The Solar Storm Of 1859 occurred on Sept 1, 1859. It was independently reported by 2 British amateur astronomers Richard C. Carrington and Richard Hodgson. 

The solar storm of 1859, also known as the Carrington Event was visible to the naked eyes, produced Auroras all over around the world. At that time, physicist and scientist were unable to calculate the magnitude and strength of the solar flare of 1859. But today with modern techniques, scientist reconstructed the Carrington Event based on the Beryllium-10 isotopes produced during the solar storm of 1859.


How Do Solar Flares Effect Earth?


There are a variety of things that happen or effect earth due to solar flare; such as:
  1. Solar flare produces high energy particles and radiation which are quite dangerous for living organisms.
  2. Satellites orbiting around earth could be minorly damaged due to solar flares.
  3. There could be an increase in the visibility and as well as in the brightness of the Auroras; known as Southern or Northern lights.
  4. High-frequency radio waves could be severely degraded.
  5. Electrical Power Grids could be damaged severely due to solar flares.
  6. There will be an increase in the chances of sunburn or even cancer due to ultra-violet rays released during a solar flare.


How To Predict Solar Flares?

Still, nowadays physicists and scientists are unable to predict the upcoming solar flare with high accuracy because the current methods used by the scientist are too problematic. Although high sunspot activity is associated with an increased chance of solar flares production yet, there is no certain accurate indication that an active sunspot will definitely produce a solar flare. However, if a strong solar flare (M or X class) is predicted, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) directly issues a forecast/warning.

ON that note, I can say that I have tried enough to give an overview of Upcoming Events & Everything About Solar Flares - In My View within my reach. If there is any suggestion, I am all ears. Feel free to comment.

That’s it for this post — share it if you like, like it if you share 🙂

 Don’t Believe It As I Said Till You Yourself Believe It First – Gautama Buddha

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Why We Celebrate Maha Shivaratri - In My View

Why We Celebrate Maha Shivaratri - In My View

Aadi-Yogi-Mahadev

Maha Shivaratri is a Hindu festival celebrated especially in India and as well as in Nepal in the honor of The God Of Destruction - SHIVA. Shivaratri is generally observed by Hindus. This festival marks overcoming darkness and ignorance in life. Shivaratri is celebrated by simply remembering shiva, chanting prayers of Shiva, practicing yoga, fasting and contemplating ethics and virtues of honesty, restraint, and forgiveness.

When Shivaratri Is Celebrated?

Well, Shivaratri is celebrated every month (12 times ) according to Hindu Calendar, but Mahashivratri is observed once a year in late winter (February/march or PHALGUNA). The 13th night (waning crescent phase at night) /14th day (new moon phase during the day) of every lunar month is observed as a day of Shivaratri. Among all the twelve Shivaratri, Mahashivaratri is observed in February-march lunar month - which is also regarded as "The Great Night Of Shiva".


Why We Celebrate Maha Shivaratri?

Churning-of-the-ocean-Manthan
Churning of the ocean - Manthan
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

According to The Legend Of Mahadev, The Supreme One - there are so many distinct stories related to the celebration of Mahashivaratri such that


  1. Shivaratri is the day when the absolute formless god SADASHIVA appeared in the form of (Shankara) Kailashpati Shiva (One Of The Tridev).
  2. Shivaratri is the day when Lord Shiva was married to her better half DEVI PARVATI.
  3. Shivaratri is the day when The Supreme One "Lord Shiva" swallowed the deadly poison that arose during the churning of ocean called Sāgara Manthana (सागरमन्थन), and by this deed, Shiva became Neelkanth Mahadev.
  4. According to some other legends, Shivaratri is the day when Mahadev performed the divine dance of creation, preservation, and destruction; in our native language known as the Tandava dance or Tāṇḍava nṛtya.
The-dance-of-Shiva
The dance of Shiva
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
These legends or Mythological Stories are often regarded as The Origin Of Shivaratri or Maha Shivaratri. But there is one more mythological story of the origin of Shivaratri and as well as the creation of Phases Of The Moon.


Why We Celebrate Maha Shivaratri - In My View

It was the time when the Adi Shakti (eternal consort of Lord Shiva) was on the earth (Bhuloka) as the Goddess Sati (long before the emergence of Goddess Parvati). Devi Sati was the daughter of the Prajapati Dakṣa (lord of all born being and son of Lord Brahma-The Creator). According to Puranas, Prajapati had so many daughters (as no of the daughters can't be a significant number as different Puranas suggest the different number of daughters).


Out of his so many daughters, Prajapati married his 27 daughters to Chandra (Moon God or we can say to the natural satellite of the planet earth). These 27 wives of Chandra are the 27 Nakshatras (the constellations) which are on the moon's orbit. Chandra was the son of Vedic sage Atri (one of the Saptarishi) and Anasuya. 

Shankara-without-moon-on-his-head
Shankara Without Moon On His Head
Credit: devonkedevmahadev.wikia.com
Even though Chandra married 27 daughters of Prajapati Daksha, yet he overly favored only one daughter i.e Rohini. Chandra while being in love with Rohini, he neglected the needs and responsibilities of the other 26 wives over Rohini. So as a result, some of the wives of Chandra complained about the neglecting behavior of Soma to their father Daksha. As a father, Daksha became furious over Chandra dev unforgivable deeds. And for this Prajapati Daksha cursed Chandra to wither and die or he will have to suffer from "Kshay" - deterioration of body within a limited period of time. Only Mahadev could protect the Chandra from the wrath of Prajapati Daksha.

During that time, Prajapati Daksha had also abandoned the worshipping of Lord Shiva i.e Daksha had cursed Lord Shiva that no one will pray to him. Only Mahadev could free Chandrama from the curse of Prajapati Daksha. With help of Lord Vishnu (the preserver) and Lord Brahma (the creator), Devi Sati relieved Lord Shiva from the curse of Prajapati Daksha.


Later when Mahadev was relieved from the curse, that means anyone can worship Lord Shiva; then in order to get rid of the curse, Chandra worshipped and performed the hardest penance of "Mahamritunjaya Mantra" composed by Sage Markandeya to please The Supreme One. And finally, Lord himself appeared in front of Chandra. Mahadev told soma that he could not completely remove the curse given by Daksha because what Chandra had done to his wives was unforgivable.


But later for the well being of nature and planet earth, Lord Shiva agreed to relieve the Chandra from the curse of Prajapati Daksha but not completely. Mahadev explained Chandra that he had to face the curse but only half of it. So Mahadev placed him on his head ( that is why Mahadev is known as Chandrashekhara) and gave Chandra the boon that, " in a month, for 15 days he would face the curse and decrease in size and for 15 days he would grow to the larger extent" The totally diminished Chandrama is nothing but "AMAVASYA or NEW MOON DAY" and the full sized Chandrama is "POORNIMA or FULL MOON DAY.

Mahadev-with-moon-on-his-head
Mahadev With Moon On His Head
Credit: devonkedevmahadev.wikia.com
The place where Chandra worshipped Lord Shiva is now known as Somnath temple which is in Gujrat made by Chandradev himself. this day, when Lord Shiva protected the Chandradev from the wrath of Prajapathi Daksha and also the Devi Sati relieved Lord Shiva from the curse of Prajapathi Daksha come to be known as the origin of Mahashivaratri festival. This is also the day when Mahadev accepted Devi Sati as his eternal consort.



How To Do Maha Shivaratri Fasting?

Mahashivaratri fast is considered as one of the most important fast for the devotees of Lord Shiva. As Shiv Purana goes on to say that if a devotee observes Shivaratri Vrata with sincerity, pure devotion, and love; he is blessed with the divine grace of Lord Shankara.

It is a well-known fact that, 
"Mahadev to bas ek Bel Patra (Aegle marmelos) se khiche chale aate hai" 

But for those who want to observe strict Maha Shivaratri fast should take bath with water that is being boiled with black sesame seeds. As of bathing with sesame seeds water, it washes away the bodily impurity. after bathing, a devotee should put fresh clothes, then devotee should visit the nearest Lord Mahadev temple in order to pray and perform the rituals such as ShivLingam bath with water, milk, and honey etc.
ShivLingam-Abhishekam
ShivLingam Abhishekam
Following the sacred bath, a devotee should apply Haldi-Kumkum on ShivaLingam and place white and pink colored flowers. After that, a devotee should place Bel Patra on the top of the ShivaLingam. in the praise of Lord Shankara, aarti and bhajans are sung to invoke the blessings of large-hearted Lord Bhole Nath.


Prayers To Lord Shiva

There are so many different kinds of prayers that are offered to Lord Bhole Nath during Maha Shivaratri. In my view, while ShivLingam Abhishekam a devotee should pray,
"O Lord ! I will bathe Thee with water, milk, etc. Do Thou kindly bathe me with the milk of wisdom. Do Thou kindly wash me of all my sins, so that the fire of worldliness which is scorching me may be put out once for all, so that I may be one with Thee-the One alone without a second"

Lord Shiva Boon To Whoever observe Mahashivaratri

Lord Shiva Quote

Maha Shivaratri ka Vrat Visesh Falon Ko Pradan Karne Wala Hai. Is vrat ko rakhne se Purusho (man) ki saari manokaamnaae puri hongi, Suhaagan strio (married girl) ka suhaag bana rahega, kuwari ladkio (unmarried girl) ko mann chaha var milega. 

Though my blog is related to the aspect of physics. But as a devotee of Lord Shiva, I could not stop myself from writing an article on Maha Shivaratri. 
ON that note, I can say that I have tried enough to give an overview that Why We Celebrate Maha Shivaratri - In My View within my reach. If there is any suggestion, I am all ears. Feel free to comment.
That’s it for this post — share it if you like, like it if you share 🙂

 Don’t Believe It As I Said Till You Yourself Believe It First – Gautama Buddha

Monday, February 5, 2018

The Science Behind The Solar Eclipse

The Science Behind The Solar Eclipse

The-Science-Behind-The-Solar-Eclipse
Credit: Rick Fienberg / TravelQuest International / Wilderness Travel

What Is Solar Eclipse?

A Solar Eclipse is a natural phenomenon that happens when the moon comes between the sun and the earth and blocks the sun for short interval of time. In simple terms, it's an eclipse during which the sun is obscured by the moon. During a solar eclipse, directly looking at the sun can cause serious eye damage or even permanent blindness; therefore, it is generally advised to view a solar eclipse wearing special eye protection.

How Often Do Solar Eclipses Occur?


A Solar Eclipse occurs only during the lunar phase called "The New Moon". Solar Eclipse generally occurs at least 2 times a year or at most 5 times a year (which is very rare). Just because the moon's orbit is tilted at approx 5 degrees to the earth's orbit around the sun, a solar eclipse occurs only 2 or maybe 5 times a year; otherwise, there would be a solar eclipse on every New Moon Day. If we go by the past 100 years data; Earth experiences an average of 2.4 solar eclipses every year.


Physics Behind The Solar Eclipse

There are several phenomena that basically govern the physics behind the solar eclipse.
  1. The first phenomena is the elliptical revolution of the moon around the earth and the elliptical revolution of the earth around the sun. As a result of the clockwise elliptical motion; the sun, the moon, and the earth come in line (align) with each other.
  2. As seen from the earth, the size of the sun and the moon appears to be same in size. Although the distance of the moon from the earth is much smaller as compared with the distance of the sun from the earth, yet the sun appears much much smaller than the much closer (smaller in size) moon.
  3. Each month, due to the alignment of sun and moon in the sky, moon's lunar phase appears to change; which is known as Phases Of The Moon. The first phase of the moon is called a new moon day. Only on new moon day, a solar eclipse can occur.

 From the above written physical phenomena, one can calculate that for the solar eclipse to occur; 1) there must be new moon day and 2) the moon must be in the ecliptic (the plane of earth's orbit around the sun).


Magnitude Of The Eclipse

Magnitude-Of-The-Solar-Eclipse
A complete description that how magnitude of the solar eclipse varies
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

The magnitude of the eclipse is defined as the ratio of the apparent size of the moon to the apparent size of the sun during the occurrence of an ellipse. This magnitude of the eclipse is applicable to both Lunar Eclipse as well as the Solar Eclipse. 

For the solar eclipse, if the magnitude is between 0.00 and 1.0 then the eclipse can be the annular or partial solar eclipse; and if the magnitude of the eclipse is 1.0 or above then the total solar eclipse occurs.


Types Of Solar Eclipse

There are generally four different types of a solar eclipse that are determined by how much of the sun is obscured by the Moon.
let's talk about each one of them, one by one!!

1. The Total Solar Eclipse

total-solar-eclipse-occurs-when-the-Moon-completely-covers-the-Sun's-disk-viewed-in-1999-solar-eclipse
total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon completely covers the Sun's disk viewed in 1999 solar eclipse
Credit: Wikimedia Commons

The Total Solar Eclipse occurs when the sun is completely obscured by the moon for a shorter period of time. In simple terms, when the sun and the moon are completely in line with the earth. During the total solar eclipse, the sunlight is totally replaced by the dark silhouette of the moon; leaving the much fainter solar corona to be visible from the earth. 

Total Solar Eclipse can only occur when the moon is at closest distance from the earth ( i.e near its perigee) because at that time the moon appears to be much large enough to completely cover the sun's bright disk (which in scientific term is known as Photosphere). When the magnitude of the solar eclipse is equal to or greater than 1; a total solar eclipse occurs.

2. The Annular Solar Eclipse

The-Annular-Solar-Eclipse
Annular Solar Eclipse
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
The Annular Solar Eclipse can only occur when the sun and the moon are completely in line with the earth but the moon is at the farthest distance from the earth (i.e near its apogee) because at that time the moon appears to be slightly smaller than the sun and as a result; not able to completely cover the sun's bright disk. When the magnitude of the solar eclipse is less than 1; the annular solar eclipse occurs.

Basically, on an average; The Annular Solar Eclipse occurs more than the total solar eclipse because most of the time, the moon is at the farthest distance from the earth that is at apogee.

3. The Partial Solar Eclipse 

the-partial-solar-eclipse
Partial Solar Eclipse
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
The Partial Solar Eclipse is the most commonly seen type of solar eclipse. The Partial Solar Eclipse occurs when the sun and the moon are not completely in line (aligned) with the earth and as a result, the sun is partially obscured by the moon. Partial solar eclipse is virtually unnoticeable in terms of sun's brightness.

During the partial solar eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse varies as seen from one location to the other location. Such that the magnitude of the solar eclipse is 0.0 at the start of an ellipse, then rising to the maximum value attainable, and finally comes back at 0.0 at the end of the ellipse. These eclipses are visible over the larger portions of the earth due to Moon's Penumbral Shadow.

4. The Hybrid Solar Eclipse

the-hybrid-solar-eclipse
Hybrid Solar Eclipse occurs between Annular and Partial Solar Eclipse
Credit: Wikimedia Commons
The last type of the solar eclipse is The Hybrid Solar Eclipse. It is generally a combination of the total solar eclipse and the annular solar eclipse because, at a certain location on the earth, it (hybrid) appears as a total solar eclipse; whereas at other location it appears as the annular solar eclipse. a hybrid solar eclipse is rarest among all the solar eclipse.


    When Is The Next Solar Eclipse?

    As far as the year 2018 is concerned, astronomers have calculated that there will be three solar eclipse occurrence this year. And all of the three solar eclipses occurring in 2018 will be the partial solar eclipse. The dates of the eclipse are as follow:

    1. 15 February 2018 (partial solar eclipse); also the day of Maha Shivaratri
    2. 13 July 2018 (partial solar eclipse)
    3. 11 August 2018 (partial solar eclipse)

    ON that note, I can say that I have tried to give an overview of The Science Behind The Solar Eclipse within my reach. If there is any suggestion, I am all ears. Feel free to comment.
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